Bhagavat Sri Ramanujacharya

Sri Ramanuja (1017 - 1137 CE), the most important philosopher-saint of Sri Vaishnavam and one of the most dynamic characters of Hinduism. He was a philosophical as well as a social reformer, displaying a catholicity that was nearly unparalleled in Hindu religious history before him. He revitalised Indian philosophy and popular religion so much that nearly every aspect of Hinduism has been influenced by his work. His life and works show a truly unique personality, combining contemplative e insight, logical acumen, catholicity, charismatic energy, and selfless dedication to God. 

The less known fact even among Srivaishnavas about this well known Acharya by  whose name Sri vaishnava philosophy is called  'Ramanuja Darsanam' and who is  hailed as "Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Nirdhaarana Saarva bouma" is that he was a  'Vadama' by birth.(Authority :"  Periya Thrumudi Adaivu, Pazhanadai Vilakkam and  Visishtaadvaita Catechism" - quoted in GLE) 

HIS AVATARA AND EARLY DAYS 
Ilaya Perumal was born to Kesava Perumal Somayaji Dikhsitar and Kanthimathi  Ammal at Sriperumpudur.  Just as Sage Vasishta on seeing the brilliance in the face of the child named him as Lakshmana saying "Lakshmano Lakshmi Sampannaha",  Periya Thiru malai Nambi struck by the Tejas of the child, named him after  Lakshmana as Ilaya Perumal.  (PPM) aka Ilayalwar. 


There is a sloka in Yadhavaachala Mahatmyam which says: 
Ananthah Prathamam Roopam Lakshmanascha Tathah Parah |  
Balabadram Thritheeyasthu Kalou Kaschit Bhavishyathi || 
(meaning) It is the same who was Adhisesha first, Lakshmana after and Balarama  in the third who is born as Sri Ramanuja in the Kali yuga.  This Kaschit is taken by our Poorva Acharyas as referring to Ramanuja (PPM) 

HIS BIRTH: (CHITRAI- TIRUVADHIRAI
His date of birth is placed differently by different authorities.As per PPM, he  was born in Kaliyuga year 4119 which corresponds to1017 AD.  PPM fixes even the exact date as 13th April 1017 AD, interms of English Calendar. 


PRA, though notes the year as 4118 Kali , maintains the year as 1017 AD only and  gives additional information that the Rasi was Karkataka and the time of birth  was exactly at noon. 
VAC, MKS and MSR also agree on the year 1017.  PTA gives a few more details like  the Yogam being Ayushman, Karanam being Bhadra, Gotra being Harita, Saakha being  Yajus, Sutra being Apasthambha and Sect being Vadama ( Vide p.45 of GLE). 


PPM and ATA mention the year as Pingala, month Chitrai and the constellation  Tiruvadirai.  PPM adds that it was a Sukla Paksha Panchami, a Friday. 

Vriddha Padma Purana presages his incarnation thus:- 
Long, long afterwards, the Lord himself will come down on earth as a Tridanda  Sannyasin, to restore the good law.  At that time heretics and men of perverted  intellects will confuse the minds of the people.  Aasuric Saastraas, based upon  fallacious arguments and various schools of thought, very attractive and almost  indistinguishable from the Vedanta, will turn away mens' hearts from Vishnu and  cause them to forget His glory.  That glorious incarnation will, through the  good fortune of the Lord's devotees, come down upon earth, to explain and  amplify the teachings of the great Sage Baadaraayana and the divine singer of  the Gita.  The holy one would compose a Bhaashya on the Vyaasa Sutras, to save  men from the confusion and despair caused by spurious doctrines and lead them to  the True faith" ( Vide p.44 of GLE) 

While still a boy , he lost his father and was living with his mother at  Kanchipuram under the protection of one 'Tiruk kachi Nambi' This Nambi was  believed to converse and was on 'speaking terms' with Lord Varadaraja in the  Archa form. 


EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF SRI RAMANUJA 


(1) Within 16 years of age, he had mastered all the Vedas and Sastras.  At age 17, he married Rakshakaambaal ( Tanjammal, in Tamil) (PPM) 

(2) Ilaya Perumal was placed under the Advaitic Sannyasi called YADAVA PRAKASA  at Tirupput kuzhi for training in Advaita Purva Paksha Sastra of Vedanta.  Once  during this period, Alavandar who desired nominating Ilaya Perumal to succeed  himself visited Tirupput kuzhi, met with him but had no opportunity to speak to  him and had to return to Srirangam. 

Very many occasions arose when the Saivite Guru clashed with Ilaya Perumal when  the Guru misinterpreted Vedantic statements.  Ilaya Perumal fearlessly pointed  out the errors in the Guru's interpretations and corrected him.  This enraged  the Guru.  Fearing that one day, Ilaya Perumal would demolish Advaita  philosophy, he plotted to kill Ilaya Perumal by drowning him in Ganga while on a  pilgrimage tour of the country with his disciples. 

Learning of the design through one Govinda, another disciple who was also  related to him, Ilaya Perumal slipped out into the forest at dead of night.  Miraculously, an aged hunter couple appeared and guided him.  As Ilaya Perumal  who was in a trance, opened his eyes, he found himself at the outskirts of  Kanchipuram and the couple had disappeared.  He realized that it was Lord  Varadaraja and Perundevi Thayar who had come in the guise of the hunter couple.  He stayed at Kanchi for a while to assist Tiruk Kachi Nambi in his daily chores  of service to Lord Varadaraja. 

(3) News came that Alavandar was very sick and he desired to meet with Ilaya  Perumal.  Just as Tirukkachi Nambi and Alavandar arrived, they saw the funeral  procession of Alavandar.  During the last rites, they noticed that three fingers  of Alavandar remained folded signifying three of his last unfulfilled wishes.  As Ilaya Perumal swore 
( i ) that he would write a commentary on Veda Vyasa's Brahma Sutra  ( ii ) that he would perpetuate the memory of Vyasa and Parasara and  ( iii ) that he would strive to propagate Visishtadvaita on the lines of the  4000 holy collects of Alwars, the fingers unfolded one by one automatically and  stretched out to normal position signifying that these were his last wishes.  Since he could not meet with Alavandar, he returned to Kanchi without even going  into the temple at Srirangam (PPM)

(4) Tirukkachi Nambi obtained from Lord Varadaraja the famous ' Six Words ' and  passed them on to Ilayalwar.  The six words provided the guidelines for  Ilayalwar to follow.  They were:- 

( i ) that Lord Narayana is the Paramatma. 

(ii ) that the individual souls were different from Paramatma. 

(iii) that Prapatti is the means to attain salvation. 

(iv)  that the last remembrance of the Lord on the part of the departing soul was not necessary. 

(v)   that Moksha can be obtained only on laying off the mortal coils (Videha Mukti) & 

(vi)  that Ilaya Perumal should take refuge at the feet of Periya Nambi. 


Accordingly, he met with Periya Nambi at Madurantakam , where under the shade of  Vakula tree Periya Nambi performed Pancha Samskara to him.  As he was initiated  into the esoteric of Dvaya Mantra at Madurantakam, the place came to be known as  "Dvayam Vilaindha Tiruppathi" (PPM) Both returned to Srirangam and did  Kalakshepams on Brahma Sutra etc.  for sometime.  It was at this time that Lord  Ranganatha called him "Nammudaiyavar" (He is ours).(PPM)   

(5) Ilaya Perumals was not a happy married life.  His wife never understood  either his greatness nor appreciated his catholicity and always acted on her own  wavelength and there was no compatibility as between them.  Several instances  are cited wherein the lady ensconced in her own in her own pet ideas of being  holy or otherwise showed scant respect to Bhagavatas and this greatly annoyed  Ilayalwar.  When he was about 30 years of age, Ilayalwar took Sannyas with the  name of 'Ramanuja Muni'.  He was the king among Sannyasis.  Hence, he is called  ' Yati Rajar'- a honorific invested by Lord Devaathi Rajan. 

(6) The seat of Acharya at Srirangam was lying vacant without a successor to  take over.  He was prevailed upon to assume charge.  But, before doing so, he  wanted to equip himself with the secrets of the three great Mantras.  For this  purpose, he approached one " Tiruk Koshtiyur Nambi" who made him come several  times before actually instructing him.  He cautioned Ramanuja that he should not  give out the secrets to all and sundry and if he did so, he would go to hell. 

Immediately on receiving the instructions, Ramanuja climbed up to the top of the  steeple of the temple and proclaimed to the large gathering of his disciples  assembled there the purport of the instruction. 
The popular belief that he gave out the Mantras is not correct; What he actually  gave out was that he had found out the way to attain Moksha through the three  great Mantras and invited those who sincerely wished to follow him and get  initiated.  Also, he did not advise all and sundry as assumed by some.  By the  time of this episode, he had already gathered a huge following of disciples who  congregated at the main entrance to the temple and he was thus addressing his  own disciples (as explained in a separate posting in this series).  This is  another less known fact about the well known Acharya Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi was so  enraged and demanded an explanation.  Ramanuja replied that he did not give out  the secrets and even if he had transgressed the specific warning of the Guru,  only he himself would go to hell but the multitude of humanity that listened to  his clarion ' wake - up' call would be saved spiritually.  The Guru was  overwhelmed by this reply .  Embracing Ramanuja appreciating his broad  mindedness, he called him 'Emperumanar'- " O!  My lord" and declared that  Srivaishnavism would thenceforward be known as " Ramanuja Darsanam"- ' the light  of Ramanuja' 

< align="center"p> 

(7) Yadava prakasa, his old Guru had by then returned to Kanchi, became  Ramanuja's disciple assuming the name of 'Govinda Yogi' 


(8) Ramanuja used to go round the streets for his Biksha.  An evil minded fellow  had mixed poison in the biksha.  His wife while serving the biksha fell at  Ramanujas feet with tears in her eyes.  Ramanuja understood that there was  something wrong.  When the Sishyas sorted out the biksha for cooking, they found  out that poison was mixed with it.  Ramanuja went on a fast with a view to  cleanse the mind of the evil-doer.  On hearing this, Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi rushed  all the way to Srirangam.  When Ramanuja heard of the coming of his Guru, he  rushed to the banks of River Kaveri to receive him.  It was the height of  summer.  Ramanuja ran towards him in the hot Sun to receive him and fell at his  feet on the burning sands on the banks of river Kaveri.  Nambi did not ask him  to get up.  Such was his Acharya Bhakti.  At that time , Kidambi Aachaan, who  was nearby told Nambi " Your action (in not asking Ramanuja to get up) is worse  than the poison mixed in the bikshai".  Such was the Acharya bhakti of Ramanujas  Sishya !(Like master, like pupil !).  Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi exclaimed, " After  all, now I can cast off my physical body since I have found one who would take  the greatest care of Ramanuja


(9) Ramanuja traveled throughout the country spreading the message of  Visishtadvaita.  Once a votary of the ' illusion theory' Yagna Murthi by name  confronted him for 16 days in endless arguments and counter arguments.  Finally,  he accepted defeat and became a disciple of Ramanuja assuming the name of  'Arulala Perumal Emperumanar' and wrote 'Gnana Saram and Prameya Saram'. 


(10) One of the most important disciples who was totally devoted to Ramanuja was  Kuresan also known as ' Kurattalwan'.  Once, Kuresan participated in the shradda  ceremony performed for his mother by the famous Tiruvarangathu Amudanar.  This  Amudanar was in charge of the Srirangam temple.  When Amudanar inquired what  Kuresan desired as reward for his participation, Kuresan replied that the  administration of the temple should be handed over to Ramanuja.  Amudanar, who  had already known the greatness of Ramanuja was only too glad to hand over the  key to Ramanuja.  It is this Tiruvarangattu Amudanar who subsequently wrote the  Ramanuja Noorrantadhi of 108 verses which was included in the holy collects to  make up the total of 4,000. 

 

More